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Reader Question: One Or Two Line Spaces Before Scene Headings? Jan 15
2013 Black List - Blank Lines Before Scene Headings

Scriptwrecked reader, Jenny, asks about line spacing:

Final Draft allows you to manually adjust to either ONE or TWO spaces between each scene.

Does it really matter?

Increasing from one to two lines adds about a page per 120 pages script, so does it really impact timing, or is it used because it is merely easier to read?

I don’t want to give producers any reason to throw out my script!

My response:

First, no legitimate producer is going to throw out your script simply because you used one line space versus two between scene headings.

Second, it doesn’t impact timing at all. It’s just recommended because it’s easier to read, and readers (i.e. gatekeepers) appreciate it more at a glance.

But ultimately, if you’re trying to hit a specific page count, and you just can’t whittle your script down any more, it’s not that big a deal to use single line spacing between scene headings.

In 2013, I did a deep dive into the Black List scripts. 18% — almost 1 in 5 — used single line spacing. 

The only caveat is that you shouldn’t attempt this with producers or managers who have already seen your script and have asked you to reduce the page count. They’ll spot the single line spacing trick from a mile away.

It’s far more important to keep the script in general less dense with shorter paragraphs, shorter scenes, and dialogue to break up action-heavy pages, etc.

So if you have a script that’s very heavy on scene description (action lines) and has limited dialogue, I’d say definitely use two line spaces before scene headings. But otherwise, it’s not a requirement; it’s just one small, additional way you can appeal to a reader when they initially fan through your script to get a sense of its density. 

Page count is much more important. In general, a 99 page script that has only one line space before scene headings will be more enticing to a reader than a 120 page script that uses two line spaces. 

But of course, solid, engaging writing trumps everything.

Category: General  | Leave a Comment
Turn Your Script Into A Novel & Sell It – This Guy Did! Oct 24

Interview with Paul A. Mendelson

Paul A. Mendelson (Photo by Mike Floyd)

Paul A. Mendelson is a professional screenwriter and a super nice guy to boot! He was kind enough to give us some insights into how he’s been able to take his scripts, turn them into novels, and get Hollywood’s interest.

If you’re thinking about taking this path and want to see how your writing stacks up, I would definitely check out Paul’s latest novel, A Meeting in Seville.

And now to the interview…


Paul, you’ve done something really impressive — you’ve turned a script into a novel, then sold it to producers interested in adapting it into a feature film. What’s more, you’ve successfully repeated that process several times! What’s your secret?

Paul A. Mendelson:

Thanks for this. Good question. But I think you’ve exaggerated my success a tad.

So far I’ve made one actual sale to producers of a book that began life as a script. It was my first novel, In the Matter of Isabel, published last year.

The other two novels-inspired-by-scripts are bubbling under – one is ‘in development’ in LA – and there is a lot of interest in my most recent novel A Meeting in Seville. I’m expecting them also to be optioned before long

Another children’s novel as yet unpublished, based on a TV treatment, is being considered now for a series.

Of course the producers who bought the first book were delighted that there was a script already written. (I did revisit the original script as writing the novel had thrown up many new and richer ideas). This was clearly a plus for me.

When you ask about my secret I think the novels gained a lot of strength from what I had learned writing the scripts. Before I even began the novels I had the characters, the structure and much of the dialogue fairly nailed down. And I owe a lot of this to feedback on the scripts from colleagues, agents and especially people such as BlueCat and Screencraft, whose contests I entered and whose excellent notes helped enormously.

I have to say the novels are works in their own right, not padded out scripts. My publishers had no idea they had even been scripts.

I am in no doubt that producers are hugely attracted to existing IP and that a book – if it’s good – makes the script easier to sell. I actually found my LA producer via linked in. She approached me after receiving a general email I sent to several of my connections when the book was published. I feel very fortunate as she and her UK partner are great and highly respected.

I hadn’t intended to turn my scripts into novels. I had written a family movie which was much liked but I was told by several people there are very few family movies which aren’t based on books. So I wrote Losing Arthur and now, via some colleagues, I have found a possible home. (I can’t as yet say where as we are still in discussion but it feels hopeful)

You ask what my secret is. I think it’s no secret. I just bit the bullet and wrote the books. I had no idea until I began that I was any sort of novelist. Now I’m starting to believe that I might be.

Interestingly people who have enjoyed my books tell me they can really ‘see’ them. So this is perhaps what a scriptwriter – and I’ve been one for thirty years – brings to the party.


Thanks for clarifying. If anything, I may have understated your accomplishments! Sounds like your screenwriting skills really informed your novel writing. But how much did your previous screenwriting success factor in to your ability to get producers to look at your novels?

Paul A. Mendelson:

I’d have to say that my track record in TV (and possibly script contests) was clearly a factor in getting my novels seen. And a BAFTA nomination doesn’t hurt.

But I still found I had to do most of the work myself – as opposed to agents etc.

I do have a script agent but found it really difficult to get a book agent. This was probably because I’m not ‘genre’ and at my age clearly don’t have decades of novel-writing ahead. They like youngsters they can nurture and mould. (It looks I will have one very soon – but only after having had three novels published). So I found the publisher myself, who liked my work enough to publish it. (The novels aren’t self-published – they’re properly selected, which of course was an endorsement for me)

Once In the Matter of Isabel was published I did, as mentioned, try to tell every contact I had about it. I suspect the LA producer I finally found, who had previously accepted my Linked-In invitation, might not have done so had not my own contacts and profile been in some way appealing. (I’ve created several long-running BBC comedy series, written some acclaimed drama for TV and radio and had movie scripts optioned.)

Regarding my children’s novel Losing Arthur, a script editor I know – who seems to rate my work and who edited my most recent novel – liked it and its scripted version enough to show it to some people who showed it to other people … etc etc.

So now I’m trying to do the same with my newly published novel A Meeting in Seville. People do seem to like the book, I’ve written the script, so I’m about to put it out there. Like Losing Arthur, the script was a Screencraft Finalist, which may also help. And, of course, I have an excellent script agent.

So in answer to your question, I doubt I would have got this far without my previous success. However, had I been able to find a good book agent then they would have made the contacts for me and my track record would have been less important. (It would be more relevant in giving me credentials to script the novel they’d just bought!)


Success definitely begets success. But indeed, there’s also no substitute for good old fashioned hustle. Leveraging LinkedIn is a nice tip for finding publishers and networking with producers, etc. What other advice would you give to screenwriters who are not credentialed pros with any helpful contacts yet are thinking about turning a script into a novel in order to gain traction in Hollywood?

Paul A. Mendelson:

Tough one.

I would have to suggest trying to get the novel published, which most probably would mean either finding an agent (they read hundreds of manuscripts but take on very few) or – as I did – a legitimate publisher who likes the work. But again they have hundreds submitted.

At least this way the uncredentialed, unconnected writer would have someone who does have the contacts – especially if it is a reputable agent.

And it’s not credentials or a track record that get you agents or publishers. It’s the quality of what you send. Unlike film companies, agents do read unsolicited, unrepresented work – or at least the first three chapters/10000 words. Just check out their requirements and submissions policies.

Or, of course, one can self-publish, so at least you have something other than a script to tout around. The trouble with self-publishing is there is no quality control (some call it vanity publishing). But these days with Amazon etc you can build up a huge raft of positive reviews which causes other algorithms to kick in and the book takes on its own agency. This can actually lead to heavy-duty publishers taking an interest and taking the writer on. Which of course would interest the film companies.

I’m not sure how much attention film companies would pay to a self-published book unless you could get some legitimate mainstream reviews from respected celebs, reviewers, critics etc to go with it.

So basically it’s still a lottery. But what I would say is that writing the novel not only gives you something real, sold and ‘actual’, a work of art that exists its own right, like a painting or a sculpture – it will also probably make your script a lot better when you revisit it once the novel is done.

You can find out more about this talented screenwriter and novelist at

New Shot, New Paragraph Jul 08

ParagraphWhen do you start a new paragraph?

One thing that tends to confound new screenwriters is the issue of paragraphs. Some scripts have longer paragraphs. Other scripts have shorter ones — some as short as one word.  So how do you decide it’s time to start a new paragraph?

I’m glad you asked. And the answer is surprisingly simple:

One shot = one paragraph

The movie in your mind

As a screenwriter, you should be visualizing your movie as you write it. And in doing so, you’re actually imagining the various shots and angles the audience would see if you directed the movie.

So when you visualize the action in your mind, whenever the camera angle changes — that’s considered a new shot. If it’s a new shot, then it should be a new paragraph.

Let’s look at an example. Visualize the following action from my script FIRE FIGHT. Where would a new shot occur?

Red flashing lights undulate across the top of Portland, Oregon’s LADDER TRUCK 10 as it speeds to an apartment complex. 20 stories up, thick smoke plumes from windows on the top floor. High winds whip the ashy cloud into chaotic swirls. Panicked residents stream out the front entrance, past the arriving truck.

I’ve chosen to break up the action as follows:

Red flashing lights undulate across the top of Portland, Oregon’s LADDER TRUCK 10 as it speeds to an apartment complex.

20 stories up, thick smoke plumes from windows on the top floor. High winds whip the ashy cloud into chaotic swirls.

Panicked residents stream out the front entrance, past the arriving truck.

So why have I broken the action up in these spots? Because there would be different shots used to capture the action. Since I’ve chosen to focus on the “red flashing lights” and the truck itself, that’s a tighter shot. In order to jump 20 stories up, you’d have to use a wider shot to capture it, so it’s unlikely it would be all part of one take.

However, if I had written something like this, it’s conceivable it would be one shot.

LADDER TRUCK 10 speeds to the base of an apartment complex. Flames ravage several floors of the building.

In this version, we’re referencing the fire truck and the burning building in what is effectively one continuous image. So it’s conceivable that we’re seeing both things in one wide shot.

And what about the second paragraph break I chose?

Well, we go from looking at the “high winds” “20 stories up” to the the “panicked residents” streaming “out the front entrance.” So we’ve gone from focusing on the top of the building to the lower floor of the building. That would typically require a new shot angle and therefore a new paragraph.

The pacing of the movie/script will often determine the length of your paragraphs. Action scripts tend to have shorter paragraphs because there are so many more shots involved. There’s a lot happening and switching rapidly between shots invokes the feeling of urgency.

Drama scripts, on the other hand, tend to have slightly longer paragraphs because we’re usually taking more time with each shot, establishing the tone the scene or soaking in the emotions of the characters.

It’s really important that you visualize your movie when you write it. If not, it won’t “feel” like a movie, and the reader will notice.

This is the kind of tip I routinely give as part of my script consulting or proofreading services. If you’d like some help with your script, I’m here for you!

Category: Style, Writing  | 3 Comments
Quick Screenwriting Tip: Don’t Abbreviate In Dialogue Jun 25

Quick TipQuick Screenwriting Tip:

Don’t use abbreviations in dialogue.

Abbreviated words like “Dept.” and “Sen.” are confusing in dialogue and force the reader to stop and think, however briefly… which is bad. Is it “Deputy” or “Department” / “Senator” or “Senior”? Just spell it out.

Mr./Mrs./Ms. are fine, however. But spell out “Doctor.”


The Incredible(s) Sale! Jun 16

It’s finally here!

One of my favorite films of all time is THE INCREDIBLES… Not just favorite animated films — favorite films, period. I just think it’s brilliant.

In celebration of the opening week of the long-awaited sequel that was just released, I’m offering a 25% refund on any proofreading or script notes purchased through June 22nd.

Just place an order on proofreading or script notes, send me your script and tell me who your favorite INCREDIBLES character is, and I’ll issue you a 25% refund. Bam!

And when you get a chance to see the sequel, let me know what you think!